Comic Book History of Comics: Notes on Sources

"Funnies Get Famous"

The designation of October 18, 1896 as the date of the tectonic shift in comic art comes from Bill Blackbeard and Martin Williams, Eds. The Smithsonian Collection of Newspaper Comics. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press & Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1977. 14. All events cited on Page 1 were gleaned from the October 19, 1896 New York Times. See also RC Harvey. Children of the Yellow Kid: The Evolution of the American Comic Strip. Seattle: Frye Art Museum, 1998. 13, 17-20.

Schon vs. Luther: Craig Yoe. Craig Yoe's Weird But True Toon Factoids. New York: Gramercy Books, 1999. 93.

Kant discusses the connection between sequence and time in Section II of "Transcendental Aesthetic," Part First of the "Transcendental Doctrine of Elements" in Critique of Pure Reason (1781). Eisner coined the term "sequential art" in Comics & Sequential Art (1985).

"Yellow journalism": Harvey 20; Yoe 77.

Bud Fisher and his innovations: Yoe 15; Blackbeard 15-16, 58-59; Harvey 23-26; "prominent position across the top": Harvey 34.

Birth of King Features: Don Markstein's Toonopedia.

Winsor McCay: Harvey 23; JVJ Publishing site and John Canemaker's 1976 documentary "Remembering Winsor McCay" on Image Entertainment's excellent DVD collection Winsor McCay: The Master Edition. When I curated the exhibit Toon Town: New York City in Comic and Cartoon Art for New York's Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art (MoCCA) in 2004, I was priviledged to hold in my hand an original cel from Gertie generously lent by Bob West, the voice of Barney, via Heidi Leigh and Animazing Gallery, and up close McCay's linework is so fine it's still astounding almost 100 years since it was drawn.

"Max, you're a bright young man": Richard Fleischer. Out of the Inkwell: Max Fleischer and the Animation Revolution. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2005. 15.

"Amazing Spicy Science Mystery Stories"

"I spotted this magazine": Greg Theakston, Ed. The Complete Jack Kirby Volume One: 1917-1940. Atlanta: Pure Imagination, 1997. 12.

"Story is worth more": ThePulp.Net.

Pulp vital statistics: "The Bloody Pulps" by Jim Steranko (originally printed in Steranko's History of Comics, Vol. 1, 1971).

The Hugo Gernsback story: Ron Goulart. Cheap Thrills: An Informal History of the Pulp Magazines. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1972. Gerard Jones. Ch. 11. Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. New York: Basic Books, 2004. 55-56. "The present order of civilization": Hugo Gernsback. "Wonders of Technocracy." Wonder Stories Vol. 4, #10. March 1933. Reprinted by The (now defunct) Pulp Zone web site.

Illustration vs. cartooning: Harvey 76, 95.

Jack Kirby's childhood: Glenn B. Fleming. "The House That Jack Built." John Morrow, Ed. The Collected Jack Kirby Collector, Vol. 2. Raleigh, NC: TwoMorrows Publishing, 1998-2000. 15. References to the Collected Jack Kirby Collector will hereafter be abbreviated to "CJKC" [volume number]:[page number]. Ergo, reference to Fleming, here, would read CJKC 2:15.

See also Kirby biography in "Lord of Light" promotional package (reproduced CJKC 2:102-3). Ken Viola. "Jack Kirby: Master of Comic Book Art." CJKC 1:130-1. Jack Kirby. "Street Code." Jon B. Cooke and John Morrow, Eds. Streetwise: Autobiographical Stories by Comic Book Professionals. Raleigh, NC: TwoMorrows Publishing, 2000. 14-23.

Many thanks also to Eric Evans and Gary Groth of The Comics Journal, who kindly provided me with a copy of the raw transcript of Groth's 1989 interview with Jack and Rosalind ("Roz") Kirby. The comprehensive interview covers most of Kirby's life and career and filled in many gaps in the artist's early years.

Siegel background: Jones 37-38, 72, 77-79, 82-85. Also Les Daniels. DC: Sixty Years of the World's Greatest Heroes. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1995. 20-21.

"Toon Feud"

Fleischer/Disney rivalry: Leonard Maltin. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: McGraw Hill, 1980. See also Leslie Cabarga. The Fleischer Story. New York: De Capo Press, 1998. Fleischer comes up with spinach: R. Fleischer 54-5.

Fleischer childhood: R. Fleischer 2-3. Disney childhood: Anthony Lane. "Wonderful World." The New Yorker. December 11, 2006: 67-75. Nat Gerbler. Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. 19-22. "You can't eat medals": R. Fleischer 74.

Head animator system: Maltin 92-95. "I hated it": Theakston, Kirby Volume One, 17.

"The super-strength and action": Jones 116.

1937 Fleischer Strike: R. Fleischer 90-92. "14 Pickets Seized in Broadway Fight." The New York Times: May 8, 1937: 5. "Movie Studio Strike Voted by 100 Workers." The New York Times. May 7, 1937: 9. "I'm Popeye the Union Man": R. Fleischer 91.

Making of Snow White: Gabler Ch. 6; rejected dwarf ideas: Ibid 220; casting animators: Ibid 233; rotoscoping: Ibid 262-3; Reaction: Ibid 272-273, R. Fleischer 93-4.

Fleischer moves to Florida: R. Fleischer 95-96. Kirby would claim (CJKC 2:112, for example) to have left Fleischer Studios a few months before the 1937 strike, but also always gives as the primary reason for his leaving (CJKC 2:15, et al) their transfer to Florida, which happened almost a full year later. Also in CJKC 2:15, however, Kirby says that "it's fortunate I didn't go [to Florida] because soon after [the studio] moved, they all went on strike and men were laid off." I am operating on the assumption that while in later life Kirby mistakenly believed that the strike and the move were coterminous occurrences, events did indeed unfold as we present them in this story.

"New Action Fun"

The birth of the comic book: Mike Benton. The Comic Book in America: An Illustrated History. Dallas: Taylor Publishing, 1989. 14-17. Coulton Waugh. The Comics. Brooklyn: Luna Press, 1974. 335-342. Jones 98-101. Gaines' contribution: Frank Jacobs. The Mad World of William M. Gaines. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, 1972. 54-6.

Poor Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson: Jones 101-102; Benton 17-18; Daniels, DC, 14-15.

Early Siegel and Shuster comics & Superman's creation: Daniels, DC, 16-17, 20-23; Jones 38, 109, 113-116. Many thanks to Comics Should Be Good's Brian Cronin for turning me on to an essay by Gregory Feeley in Science Fiction Studies #95, Volume I, Part 5 (March 2005), which discusses on Wylie's influence (or lack thereof) on Siegel and emphasizing the John Carter of Mars connection.

"Demmed, elusive Pimpernel": Baronness Orzcy. The Scarlet Pimpernel (1905 novel). Ch.12. "Seor Zorro has paid a visit": Johnston McCulley. The Curse of Capistrano (1919). Ch. 4. Zorro background is from the 2000 documentary The Many Faces of Zorro, written by Philip Dye.

The Wonderman debacle: Bob Andelman. Will Eisner: A Spirited Life. Milwaukie, OR: M Press, 2005. 43-45. Eisner thinly fictionalizes the Wonderman story in his autobiographical graphic novel The Dreamer. Princeton, WI: Kitchen Sink, 1986.

Kirby meets Fox, Simon meets Kirby: Joe Simon with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers. Lebanon, NJ: Vanguard Press, 2003. 29-33. "I'm the King of the Comics!": Simon 30 (Simon writes [33], "Every artist got the Fox monologue treatment."). "Don't want no Rembrandts!": Pierce Rice in The Comics Journal #219. January 2000: 86. Simon's Art Background: Theakston, Kirby Volume One, 99-100.

1940 comic book statistics: Benton 32; Kurtzberg Becomes "Kirby": Simon 41.

"America [Hearts] Comics"

"Artists sat lumped": Jules Feiffer. The Great Comic Book Heroes. New York: Dial Press, 1965. 50-1.

Comics shop stories: Pimp: Gil Kane in The Comics Journal #186. April 1996: 57; "Well how much do you need?": Joe Kubert in The Comics Journal #172. November 1994: 64; "below digging ditches...get to do a syndicated strip": Ibid 67.

Martin Goodman and Funnies, Inc.: Les Daniels. Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1993. 17-23. See also Theakston, The Complete Jack Kirby Volume Two: 1940-1941. Atlanta: Pure Imagination, 1997. 11-13. Writing "Roman" backwards: Marvel Comics Vol. 1 No. 1. New York: Marvel, 1990. 39.

Simon & Kirby at Timely: Daniels, Marvel, 32-52; Theakston, Kirby Volume Two, 236-245; Simon 42-57, 52-53. "Started with the villain": CJKC 1:54. "The bastard is alive": Simon 43. "The pressure was trememndous ... needed a superpatriot": Theakston, Kirby Volume Two, 238. Lamppost threat: CJKC 1:181. La Guardia Help: Simon 45. Sentinels of Liberty ad copy: Joe Simon and Jack Kirby. Captain America: The Classic Years 2. New York: Marvel Comics, 2000. 42.

Stan Lee, nee Lieber: Stan Lee. Excelsior! New York: Simon & Schuser, 2002. Ch. 2; Simon 46.

The spread Siegel mentions would be "Up, Up and Awa-a-y! The Rise of Superman, Inc." John Kobler. Saturday Evening Post. June 21, 1941. 14-15, 70-78. "Aw, I told you": Kobler 14. "The businessmen have made an even better thing": Ibid 15.

Walt Disney's Comics and Stories: Benton, America, 30, 158.

S&K defect to DC: Daniels, DC, 64. Simon 53, 58-61. "I'm your man ... Martin is furious": Simon 53. "I'm gonna kill him": "More Than Your Average Joe: Excerpts from Joe Simon's Panels at the 1998 Comicon International: San Diego." Jack Kirby Collector #25 (Downloaded from TwoMorrows web site 4/14/00).

"Our Artists At War"

"Inventive Israelite...Colorado beetle": Das Schwarze Korps. April 25, 1940. 8. Translated by Randall Bytwerk on Calvin College web site.

Comic creators' service records: Simon 63-7; Lee, Excelsior!, Ch. 3; Andelman Ch. 3.

Read "How to Spot a Jap" in its entirety at Ethan Person's web site.

"Images demonstrated process": Andelman 85.

Disney goes to war: Gabler Ch. 8; "for everybody but himself": Ibid 365; "as invisible as possible": Ibid 379; ship and plane emblems: Disney Goes to War site. .

Minute Man Bert Christman: Andrew Glaess. "Remembering Bert Christman."

Our Kirby at War: Ray Wyman, Jr. "Jack Kirby on: World War II Influences." The Jack Kirby Collector #27. February 2000: 16-23; 1989 Groth interview; Greg Theakston. "Kirby's War." Jack Kirby Quarterly. Spring 1999: 6-13. "Jack Kirby, the artist? ... nice guys don't get scout duty": Wyman 20.

Mickey Mouse password: Toons at War web site.

Comics sales at WWII post exchanges (PXs): Waugh 334.

"All You Need Is Love"

Captain Marvel's circulation woes: Benton 43.

The Archie Comics story: Don Markstein's Toonopedia ; Benton 93-5, 181-3.

The best survey of romance comics may be found in Trina Robbins. From Girls to Grrrlz: A History of Women's Comics from Teens to Zines. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1999. Ch. 2.

The birth of Young Romance: Robbins 50-52; Simon 109-112; Benton 141-2; Robert Greenberger. "Comics Find True Love." Millennium Edition: Young Romance Comics #1. April 2000: inside covers. Richard Howell. "Kirby's Romance Women: Tough Enough?" CJKC 5:64-66. Genre statistics: Benton 46.

"I hope they put out more ... borders on pornography": Simon 112.

1947 comic book industry statistics: Waugh 334. Greg Theakston. The Complete Jack Kirby: March-May 1947. Atlanta: Pure Imagination, 1998. 107.

"Crime...Does It Pay!"

Biro meets voyeur: Simon 56-57. Mike Benton. The Illustrated History of Crime Comics. Dallas: Taylor Publishing Co., 1993. 20.

Gil Kane tells the Western Union girls' locker room story in The Comics Journal #186: 48.

The Lev Gleason Story: Benton, America, 124-125; Crime, 19-22; Jones, 193, 235. Everything I know about the Lev Gleason Daredevil comes from Don Markstein's Toonopedia .

CDNP letters practices: Benton, Crime, 29. Origin of Mr. Crime: Ibid 27-28. CDNP Sales Figures: Benton, America 125; Crime 35.

Titles that magically turned into crime comics once the trend began include Fox super heroes Blue Beetle and Phantom Lady, Marvel's venerable Sub-Mariner (which was re-titled Official All-True Crime Cases) and, under the guidance of Simon & Kirby, Crestwood's Headline Comics.

Chicago crime comics ban: Theakston, Kirby March-May 1947, 108. Other anti-crime comics legislation and Gleason's reaction: Benton, Crime, 75-76.

Post-Code fate of CDNP & its creators: Benton, Crime, 85-87; Jones 281-282; Simon 151-153; Yoe 106.

Bob Wood, murderer: Kermit Jaediker. "Gramercy Park Gets the Horrors." New York Daily News. September 14, 1958: 3. "Cartoonist Held as Slayer." The New York Times. August 28, 1958.

"The House of Fear"

Early comics criticism: Amy Kiste Nyberg. Seal of Approval: The History of the Comics Code. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1998. Chs. 1-2.

That big weirdo, William Moulton Marston: Daniels, DC, 58-61; Jones 205-211; Nick Gillespie. "William Marston's Secret Identity: The strange private life of the creator of Wonder Woman." Reason. May 2001. "Who Was Wonder Woman 1?" Bostonia. Fall 2001.

"Blood-curdling masculinity ... cynical enough": Daniels, DC, 58. "When women rule ... preference in story strips": Olive Richard (aka Olive Byrne). "Our Women Are Our Future." Family Circle. August 14, 1942. . "Psychological propaganda": Les Daniels. Wonder Woman: The Complete History. New York: Chronicle Books, 2000. 22. "Willing slaves": Daniels, DC, 58. "Sold more comics": Daniels, DC, 61. "Enjoy submission": Lamb.

All-American Comics: Daniels, DC, 48-63; Jacobs Ch. 3; "Where's Bill?": Ibid 56-7. "How long it took Moses": Ibid 59-60;

EC's New Trend: Jacobs Chs. 4-7; Benton 112-114. "Old man's stockroom boy": Ibid 63. Pencil sharpener suggestion: Ibid 78.

"Evil twin brother": Dick DeBartolo. Good Days and MAD: A Hysterical Tour Behind the Scenes at MAD Magazine. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1994. 192-3.

"Americans are good guys": Greg Sadowski, Ed. The Comics Journal Library Vol. 7: Harvey Kurtzman. Seattle: Fantagraphics, 2006. 104. "If I was going to tell kids anything about war": Ibid 24. "To the right of the sulpha": Jacobs 82. "The average comic-book guy" Sadowski 43. "I wasn't making any money": Ibid 111. Protesting horror comics: Ibid 108.

"Important contributing factor": Wertham's Senate testimony, from the transcript in Maurice Horn, Ed. The World Encyclopedia of Comics. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1999. 871.


"No child should be diagnosed": HL Mosse. "The Misuse of the Diagnosis Childhood Schizophrenia." American Journal of Psychiatry. March 1958: 114(9):791-4. Wertham biography: Nyberg Ch. 4.

"Easier to sentence a child to life": Nyberg 33. Revenue quote: Benton 48.

"Lack of modulation": Richard Warshow. "Paul, the Horror Comics, and Dr. Wertham." Commentary Vol. 17 (1954). Reprinted in Jeet Heer and Kent Worcester. Arguing Comics: Literary Masters on a Popular Medium. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2004. 69. Warshow's praise of Krazy Kat, "Woofed with Dreams" from The Parisian Review (1946), may be found on 63-66.

"Distinction between 'bad' and 'good'": Ibid 76. "Irritated pleasure": Ibid 68.

"You're a humorist": Jacobs 85.

"Indiscriminate anarchy": Heer & Worcester 68.

"I was pretty bitter": Sadowski 44.

"Desecrated Christmas": David Hajdu. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008. 220.

"If you open the door": Attributed to Anthony Comstock (1844-1915).

"Crime comic book for parents": Heer & Worcester 77.

"The group most anxious to destroy comics": William M. Gaines and Jack Davis. "Are You a Red Dupe?" The Haunt of Fear #26. July-August 1954: Inside front cover.

"Hitler was a beginner": Horn 880.

"Good taste": Jacobs 109.

"Stupid, stupid, stupid": Hajdu 271.

"No Harm": Peter Kihss. "No Harm in Horror, Comics Issuer Says." The New York Times. April 25, 1954: A1.

"It was like the plague": Hajdu 326.

"Most severe set of principles": Nyberg 112.

"Too violent": Lee, Excelsior, 96.

"Comics were a bastard form": Jacobs 117.

"Russian beatnik": Marshall McLuhan. Understanding Media. 1964. Reprinted in Heer & Worcester 109.

"Unsuitable for reproduction": Nyberg 81.

"Not the cause": Ibid 83.

"Fanbase Presents..."

The full story on EC fandom can be found in Ch. 1 of Bill Schelly's The Golden Age of Comics Fandom. Seattle: Hamster Press, 1995.

R. Crumb's Childhood: The film Crumb, directed by Terry Zwigoff (1994). Chs. 1-2 of R. Crumb and Peter Poplaski. The R. Crumb Handbook. London: MQ Publications Ltd., 2005.

"Forced me to draw": Peter Poplaski, Ed. The R. Crumb Coffee Table Art Book. Boston: A Kitchen Sink Book for Little, Brown and Company, 1997. 3. See also R. Crumb. "Treasure Island Days" (1978). Reprinted in Crumb Coffee Table, 20-21.

Disneyland (the TV show): Gabler 511-513.

"I lived, breathed and ate": Sadowski 14.

"The real importance of Foo": Crumb Handbook 100.

Science Fiction/Double Feature: Julius Schwartz with Brian M. Thomsen. Man of Two Worlds: My Life in Science Fiction and Comics. New York: Harper Collins, 2000. Benton 171-174. Michael Uslin, Ed. Mysteries in Space: The Best of DC Science Fiction Comics. New York: Fireside, 1980.

"A whole new audience": Schwartz 87.

"Spread disease": Schelly 23. "Fantastic Coincidence": Ibid 24.

Kirby v. Schiff: Jon B. Cooke. "The Story Behind Sky Masters." CJKC 3:147-151.

"Tales to Marvel (at)"

Atlas Shrugged: Jim Vadeboncoeur, based on a story uncovered by Brad Elliott. "The Great Atlas Implosion." CJKC 4:134-7; Lee, Excelsior, Ch. 8; Daniels, Marvel, Ch. 3. Patsy Walker crosshatch: Al Jaffe in The Comics Journal #225. July 2000: 41.

American News anti-trust case: Nyberg 125-6; "on the Titanic": Excelsior 99. "Sixteen titles" meant eight titles per month, or, in practice, 16 bi-monthly titles published every other month.

"Quite a novel idea": Schwartz 97; Lee's monologue is adapted from Ch. 1 of his Origins of Marvel Comics. New York: Fireside, 1974.

"I wrote an outline": Excelsior 114-5. I read a reproduction of the original outline for Fantastic Four #1 on display at the MoCCA exhibit Stan Lee: A Retrospective in 2007.

"I'd be writing a story for Kirby ... lazy man's device": CJKC 4:143.

"The best thing": R.C. Harvey. The Art of the Comic Book: An Aesthetic History. Jackson: Mississippi Press, 1996. 44.

"The Twentieth-Century Mythology": "OK, You Passed the 2-S Test—Now You're Smart Enough for Comic Books." Esquire. September 1966: 115. It's worth noting that this article, one of the earliest mainstream pieces on Marvel, describes Stan Lee as "the author of Marvel's ten super-hero comics" (emphasis mine) and though Jack Kirby provides the illustrations for the tongue-in-cheek piece, his name (other than his signature on his art), or Ditko's, or any other artist's, is not mentioned anywhere in the article.

"Stan Lee was being foisted on me": Alex Ross in The Comics Journal #224. June 2000. 78.

"I like very much": Nat Freedland. "Super-Heroes with Super Problems." The New York Herald Tribune Sunday Magazine. January 9, 1966. Reprinted CJKC 4:156.

"ESP sessions": Ibid 159. Roy Thomas, Lee's assistant, who was called in to witness the same session the reporter observered, reports on Kirby being upset about it — and Stan being embarrassed — in an interview in CJKC 4:148.

"I'm gonna blow": Gil Kane interview, Comics Journal #186. April 1996: 95.

Ditko and Ayn Rand: Blake Bell. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko. Seattle: Fantagraphics, 2008. Ch. 6.

"Mysticism": Ayn Rand. The Virtue of Selfishness. New York: Signet, 1964. 29.

"They are all abstractions": Steve Ditko. The Avenging Mind. Bellingham, WA: Robin Snyder and Steve Ditko, 2008. 9. "Executing is creating": Ibid 10. "Like someone wanting a building": Ibid 11.

Ditko departs: Bell 94-5.

Lee himself admits Kirby was the sole creator of the Silver Surfer in CJKC 4:143 and in his own 1975 book Son of Origins of Marvel Comics (p206).

"The backbone of Marvel": CJKC 4:181.


"A very strong afterimage": Janis Hendrickson. Roy Lichtenstein. Koln, Germany: Taschen, 2006. 10.

"More as an observer": Ibid 20.

Lichtenstein's process is described in detail in "Is He the Worst Artist in the U.S.?" Life Magazine. January 31, 1964.

Beer cans as art: Klaus Honnef. Pop Art. Koln: Taschen, 2004. 21.

"How can you like exploitation?": Hendrickson 39.

"A wish dream": Dr. Fredric Wertham. Seduction of the Innocent. New York: Rinehart, 1954. 190.

It's a Bird! It's a Plane! It's Superman!: Daniels, DC, 146-7.

"I thought they were crazy ... like an idiot": Joel Eisner. The Official Batman Batbook. Chicago: Contemporary Books, Inc., 1986. 6.

"I loathed the word 'camp'": Adam West with Jeff Rovin. Back to the Batcave. New York: Berkeley Books, 1994. 98-100.

"The Texas Mafia"

Jack Jackson background: Patrick Rosenkranz. "Jack Jackson's Long Rough Ride Comes to an End." The Comics Journal #278. October 2006: 20-26; Rosenkratz. Rebel Visions: The Underground Comix Revolution, 1963-1975. Seattle: Fantagraphics, 2002. 16-26. "putting one over on the bigwigs": "Ride" 22.

Chet Helms, aka Family Dog: Joel Selvin. "Chet Helms, aka Family Dog, celebrated along with his era." San Francisco Chronicle. October 31, 2005. B-1.

"Medically unfit": Frank Stack's interview of Gilbert Shelton in The Comics Journal #187.

Birth of Rip-Off Press: Patrick Rosenkranz. "Underground Publishers." The Comics Journal #264; Jack Jackson. "Rip-Off Press: The Golden Era." 1988. Reprinted in The Comics Journal #278. October 2006: 29-32. See also Rebel, 90-94; 132-4. "Texas Mafia": "Ride" 22-3.

"Feed Your Head"

Crumb in New York: Rosenkranz 53-56.

"The only thing we had in common": Documentary The Confessions of Robert Crumb, written by Crumb.

"My mind was a garbage receptacle": Crumb Handbook 60. "'What the hell does it all mean?'": Ibid 132.

Help! as "first underground comic": Jay Lynch, attributed in Rosenkranz 27.

"A Tribtue to Dr. Strange": Bell 78.

"Crazy and helpless ... egoless state": Handbook 132.

"Got room for one more?": Ibid 127.

"Some of that free love action ... I couldn't get with it": Crumb (Zwigoff).

"I thought he must be an old man": Rosenkranz 69.

"Turning up in all the windows in Haight Street": Crumb (Zwigoff).

"The real big vision": Rosenkranz 71.

"Masses of humanity being gassed": Ibid 120.

"'I'm beautiful, I'm spiritual'": Ibid 67.

"Completely biltzkrieged": Dez Skinn. Comix: The Underground Revolution. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2004. 49.

"I got too much love": Rosenkranz 137.

"Internment camps": Ibid 143.

"We can't stop you": Ibid 162.

"Dependent on no outside force": Ibid 182.

Spider-Man vs. the Comics Code: Daniels, Marvel, 152-154.

"That was supposed to be a joke": Handbook 172.

"I was the meat": Ibid 189, 194.

"'Til the bubble bursts": Rosenkranz 170.

"You can't win!": Confessions of R. Crumb.

"Mouse Pirates"

Much of the information in this story comes from the work of Bob Levin, specifically "The Pirate and the Mouse: Part 2." The Comics Journal #239. November 2001: 34-63; and "Disney's War Against the Counterculture." Reason. December 2004. See also Rosenkranz 197-204.

"Rape our sisters": Robert L. Garland. "The Sky River III Story": .

"Pair of hands for the counterculture": Levin, "Pirate," 35.

"Outrage at '50s America": Ibid 38.

"Living Grimm Brother": Rosenkranz 202.

"Why have a fight if no one comes?": Levin, "Pirate," 40.

"Are you Dan O'Neill?": Ibid 41.

"It's still a line ... deal with the image ... Jonathan Swift ... obliterating copyright protection": Levin, "Disney's War."

"If you do something stupid twice": Levin, "Pirate," 52.

The 2 Live Crew 1994 Supreme Court case is Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music.

"Heavy Mettle"

Le Journal de Mickey at Disney Comics Worldwide site. "The Deadly Side of French Comics History" by Spider Rocket (2003):

Tintin's Nazi Troubles: Michael Farr. The Adventures of Herge, Creator of Tintin. San Francisco: Last Gasp, 2007. Ch. 3.

Heavy Metal: Dave Cail's HM fan site. Gary Groth and Kim Thompson. "'We're All Lunatics.': The Heavy Metal Interview." The Comics Journal #49. September 1979: 42-50. Gary Groth. "A Life on the Fringe of Comics: The Ted White Interview." The Comics Journal #59. October 1980: 56-81.

"Another outlet": Groth and Thompson, "Heavy Metal," 43.

Comics Implosion: Benton, America, 77, 80; "The DC Implosion" by David R. Black in Fanzig #27 (July 2000).

Star Wars, Epic Illustrated: Daniels, Marvel, 177, 183-4. "The way it works in the real world": "Rick Marschall on EPIC: 'Every Comic Book Publisher Should Be Doing This...'" The Comics Journal #40. September 1979: 9-10.

"The Grabbers"

Many thanks to Jeff Trexler of, a lawyer, professor and blogger on legal issues in comics, for reviewing this story for Ryan and I.

"An employee who hires another": Playboy v. Dumas, 53 F.3rd 549 (2d. Cir. 1995).

"To have and to hold forever": Joanne Siegel and Laurel Siegel Larson v. Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc., Time-Warner, Inc., and DC Comics, Inc. ORDER GRANTING IN PART AND DENYING IN PART PLAINTIFFS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT; ORDER GRANTING IN PART AND DENYING IN PART DEFENDANTS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT. Central District of California 2008. 10. The copyright notices cited are part of the defendants' exhibits in this legal action. The acrimony between Siegel and various DC employees, including Liebowitz, is nakedly evident from the correspondence included in same.

"Employees of a Work Made for Hire": National Peridoical Publications, Inc. Certificate of a Registration of a Claim to Renewal Copyright dated May 18, 1939. R. #388937. Siegel & Shuster vs. DC, Round 1: Jones 225-6, 244-9.

Robinson discusses his contributions to Batman in his interview with The Comics Journal #271. October 2005: 82-3.

Siegel & Shuster vs. DC, Round 2: Mary Breasted. "Superman's Creators, Nearly Destitute, Invoke His Spirit." The New York Times. November 22, 1975: 31. Siegel's reaction to Puzo deal: Jones xi-xiii.

Jack Kirby's legal troubles with Marvel Comics, over Joe Simon and his art, are summarized by John Morrow. "Art vs. Commerce." The Jack Kirby Collector #24. April 1999: 28-31.

Robinson & Adams fight for Siegel & Shuster: Jones 319-323.

The sorry state of the Marvel original art storage facility from 1975 to 1980 is delineated by ex-employee Irene Vartanoff to Tom Heintjes. "Where did all the art go?" The Comics Journal #105. February 1986: 16-22.

"Asks for a Jack Kirby": Tom Heintjes. "The Negotiations: Jack Kirby discusses his efforts to retrieve his art from Marvel Comics." The Comics Journal #105. February 1986: 59. "I sold them stories": Ibid 58.

"Provide as a gift": The complete text of the agreement Marvel originally wanted Kirby to sign may be found on the inside front cover of The Comics Journal #105.

"I can't sign it ... I have more respect for you": Heintjes, "Negotiations," 54. "They're grabbers": Ibid 59.

"More money for creating Darkseid": Hour Twenty-Five radio talk show transcript (1986). CJKC 4:209.

Howard the Duck suit: John Morrow. "The Other Duck Man." CJKC 2:72-75.

Blade suit: The trial transcripts are reprinted (in part) in "Creators Rights on Trial: Marv vs. Marvel, Part 2." The Comics Journal #239. November 2001: 68-112.

DeCarlo vs. Archie: Eric Walsh. "Dan DeCarlo, Archie Artist and Creator of Josie and the Pussycats, Is Dead at 82." The New York Times. December 23, 2001.

Simon vs. Marvel, Round 2: Michael Dean. "Joe Simon Claims Cap Copyright." The Comics Journal #219. January 2000: 8-10.

"Subject to termination ... after seventy years": ORDER GRANTING IN PART...:. 48, 72.

"It Rhymes with Traffic Hovel"

"The most fertile inventor of combinations": David Kunzle. Father of the Comic Strip: Rodolphe Tpffer. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2007. Kindle Edition, Ch. 2. "The drawings, without this text": Ibid Ch. 3.

"Bringing details out of darkness": Lynd Ward. "On 'Gods' Man'." Lynd Ward: Six Novels in Woodcuts, Vol. 1. New York: Library of America, 2010. 783.

The Classics Illustrated Story: Benton 123-124. William B. Jones, Jr. "Alfred Lewis Kanter." "We were the best": Benton 123.

"Batman to Beowulf": Arnold Drake. "The Graphic Novel — and How It Grew." Arnold Drake, Leslie Waller & Matt Baker. It Rhymes with Lust. Milwaukie, OR: Dark Horse Books replica edition, 2007. 129.

"Turning out a pornographic book": Mike Craton, Gary Groth, and Gil Kane. "Kane on Savage: An Interview with the Creator." Gil Kane's Savage! Stamford, CT: Fantagraphics Books, 1982. 50.

"The best thing he ever saw": Gil Kane in The Comics Journal #186. 87.

"The shape of the 60s": Art Spiegelman. "Intro." Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book. Princeton, WI: Kitchen Sink Press, 1988. ix.

"Two years after meeting Lynd Ward": Art Spiegelman. "Reading Pictures." Lynd Ward: Six Novels in Woodcuts. Vol. 1. xxiv.

"Mouse as the oppressed": Rosenkranz 189-190.

"You the guy who does those pictures?": Andelman 150. "That sounds interesting": Ibid 290.

"Absolute shock of an oxymoron": Art Spiegelman in The Comics Journal #180. September 1995: 76.

"One thing that's irritating": Christopher Irving. "Art Spiegelman: Still Movin' With Comix." Graphic NYC.

"Hard to classify": Alessandra Stanley. "'Thousand Acres' Wins Fiction As 21 Pulitzer Prizes Are Given." The New York Times. April 8, 1992.

"1986 AD"

The Looking Glass: Paul Gravett & Peter Stanbury. Great British Comics. London: Aurum Press Ltd., 2006. 8.

"The boy's concentration": Martin Barker. A Haunt of Fears: The Strange History of the British Horror Comics Campaign. London: Pluto Press Ltd., 1984. 11. Communist Party involvement in UK comics campaign: Barker Ch. 3. "This American vulgarisation": Ibid 25. Text of the Children and Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act: Ibid. 16.

National Comics Publications v. Fawcett Publications: Jacobs 262.

"Anonymous British backdrop ... this became a preoccupation": The film The Mindscape of Alan Moore, written, produced and directed by Dez Vylenz (2003).

"World's most inept LSD dealer": Inside Out East, BBC, airdate March 31, 2008.

"Better about an English superhero": George Khoury, Ed. Kimota! The Miracleman Companion. Raleigh, NC: TwoMorrows Publishing, 2001. 11.

"Dead and buried": Gravett & Stanbury 109.

"Do what you like": Khoury 10. For Skinn's side of the story, see Khoury 41.

"Thirty people in anoraks": Mindscape of Alan Moore (Vylenz).

"Applying real world logic": Khoury 23.

"Put in a taxicab": Dave Gibbons. Watching the Watchmen. London: Titan Books, 2008. 124. "Batman and Robin!": Ibid 241.

"It's like a Xerox": Interview with Neil Gaiman. Conducted October 26, 1989 12:30 am. by Brian Hibbs, Owner of San Francisco's Comix Experience. Transcribed by Brian Hibbs. Edited by Brian Hibbs and Neil Gaiman.

"A dog riding a bicycle ... doomed the mainstream": Adam Rogers. "Legendary Comics Writer Alan Moore on Superheroes, The League, and Making Magic." Wired. February 23, 2009.

This account of the post-Eclipse battle for Miracleman comes from Hank Wagner, Christopher Golden and Stephen R. Bissette. Prince of Stories: The Many Worlds of Neil Gaiman. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008. 224-230.

"The God of All Comics"

Etymology of "manga": Frederik L. Schodt. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1986. 18. Also Natsu Onoda Power. God of Comics: Osamu Tezuka and the Creation of Post-World War II Manga. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi 2009, Kindle ed. Ch. 1.

Tezuka's early years: Helen McCarthy. The Art of Osamu Tezuka: God of Manga. New York: Abrams, 2009. Ch1.

"Jail editor": Schodt 51. "Poor-quality, harmful": McCarthy 20.

"I wept": Power Ch. 7.

"It's just like I am watching a movie!": Fujuko Fujio A, in Futari de shonen manga bakari kaite ita (All We Ever Did Was Draw Boys' Comics), quoted by Power Ch. 3. "One in three": Ibid Ch. 5.

"News: Astro Boy a Japanese Citizen?" AnimeNewsNetwork. March 30, 2003.

Disney meets Tezuka: McCarthy 158.

"'Gekiga's' intended target":The entire text of "Introduction to the Gekiga Workshop" (aka Gekiga Manifesto) may be found on page 730 (in Japanese) and 852 (in English) of Yoshihiro Tatsumi. A Drifting Life. Translated by Taro Nettleton. Montreal: Drawn & Quarterly, 2009.

"Anything he wished": Power Ch. 3.

The Star System: McCarthy Ch. 2; Power Ch. 4.

"Amplification through simplification": Scott McCloud. Understanding Comics. Northhampton, MA: Tundra Press, 1993. 30.

"In contrast to the American comic": Schodt 23.

American manga statistics: Jason Thompson. "How Manga Conquered the U.S., a Graphic Guide to Japan's Coolest Export." Wired. October 23, 2007. Many thanks to Kurt Hassler, the buyer mentioned in the article, who helped spearhead the manga bookstore revolution in the US. Now with Hachette, he kindly spoke with me about past and present issues in American manga publishing.

"One of the answers": Power Ch. 8. "The God of All Comics": Ibid Ch. 1.

"No More Wednesdays"

"Dope out for ourselves": Maggie Thompson. "A quarter century of delivering comics: Steve Geppi's company gets comics to stores." Comics Buyer's Guide #1628. May 2007: 27.

"That's crazy!": Michael Dean. "Fine Young Cannibals: How Phil Seuling and a Generation of Teenage Entrepreneurs Created the Direct Market and Changed the Face of Comics." The Comics Journal #277. July 2006: 56. "Didn't really care": Ibid 53.

Dazzler's stats come from Benton 82; Supes' from Joe Brancatelli. "The Comic Books: Death by the Numbers." Eerie #96. October 1978: 17.

Direct Market growth statistics: Dean 53, 54. "Not enough product": Ibid 57. See also "Jack Kirby Returns to Comics with Cosmic Hero." The Comics Journal #65. August 1981: 23.

The B&W Boom & Bust: Gary Groth. "Black and White and Dead All Over." The Comics Journal #277. July 2006: 60-67.

The Perelman Marvel Saga: Dan Raviv. Comic Wars. New York: Broadway Books, 2002. R. Walker and Josh Neufeld. "The Comic Book Villain." Titans of Finance. Alternative Comics. 2001. iBooks edition.

The Speculator Fiasco of the 90's: Dirk Deppey. "Suicide Club: How Greed and Stupidity Disemboweled the American Comic-Book Industry in the 1990s." The Comics Journal #277. July 2006: 69-75. "Pick the cotton ... The Plantation": Michael Dean. "The Image Story, Part One: Forming an Image." The Comics Journal #222. April 2000: 12.

As a Marvel freelancer at the time, I actually received the court notice announcing Marvel's bankruptcy in 1996.

Thanks again to Hachette's Kurt Hassler as well as Orbit's Alex Lencicki for discussing the challenge of digital piracy and scanlation to American manga publishing with me.

Much of our discussion of piracy was inspired and informed by self-identified pirates themselves. Via Twitter and our Evil Twin Comics blog, Ryan and I asked people to tell us why they did or didn't torrent comics via our web site and anonymous email. The source for much of the historical perspective of scanning and piracy comes from an ex-scanner by the name of Jamie Coville, who gave us permission to name him as a source. "Okay! Full steam ahead!" comes from an email he wrote us on April 14, 2011. You can read many of their responses at our web site.

Inman interview: GF. "Pease porridge hot." The Economist. December 29, 2010.